This research examines the implicit meaning of Surah al-Fatiha view implicature. Although it is said to be concerned about the pragmatic normal "situation" in the wording (text) rule (Product), it is still possible to analyze texts and poems, even if the lines are "abnormal" because they were not imposed by normal humans. This investigation concluded that the verses containing the intentions of God who has confessed to certain ways by humans. It also implies a deeper meaning than can be obtained as education for the good of the Hereafter.
Keywords: implicature, the implicit meaning, verses, the Qur'an, Al-Fatiha.
Quran is one and the last, holy books sent by God to man by his messenger, Muhammad. Today, the translations of the Koran can be found in this world with ease. However, until Now, the sacred book has not been analyzed from the pragmatic point of view. We can also find a lot of the interpretation of the Koran by scientists Muslims, but interpretations are based on the literal meaning of texts. This research is conducted, thus beginning the analysis of the verses Quran pragmatic point of view.
analysis of verses pragmatic point of view as possible, pragmatic approaches are applicable to almost all known languages worldwide. This analysis is not based on the assumption that God wants something more to say another thing. This analysis is based on the assumption there is more meaning implicit in the text of the verses that can be obtained, understanding that the text becomes more efficient and thorough plan that what is written about God.
This research examines some verses of the Koran sequenced (1-7) taken from Al-Fatiha, the point of view of implicature. The initial objective of this work is to investigate the implicit meanings of the verses.
These lines are Indonesia and English before being analyzed. However, the original form of verses (in Arabic) is also presented.
Some questions in Arabic syntax is specifically why God uses this word is another word problem and not to analyze in this regard. The verses will be discussed later translated into Indonesian and English. Thus, the base hypothesis testing Indonesia is the convention of English and not Arabic.
This research should begin the analysis of lines through a "pragmatic." This research does not add lines or change them. Again, it's just for the pleasure of our best understanding of the verses. As the first survey in this regard, this research has only seven verses. The research of the day is expected to more.
2. Literature Review
2.1. First thing first
The first thing they ask is that "it is the verse of a text?" Then, we must first answer "What is a text?" Text of the general definition proposed by Eggins (2004:23-24) that any passage, spoken or written regardless of their length, forming a unified whole. The definition of poetry in Oxford Dictionary division is numbered in a chapter of the Bible (read: the sacred books). Looking more than two definitions, you can see, obviously, the lines are actually the text, regardless of who created and for which it was created.
Quran is a holy book is written as an attempt to maintain God says. Koran is mostly spoken text was written. Under the above statement, however, Untold entities in the rows can not be ignored, as the main actors and settings. That is, this study focuses on the lines as spoken text involving participants and settings.
The question (is the line from a text?) Has been answered. The next issue is important that the issue of difference text the verse and the chapeau, as mentioned later. Word lines, or more generally, the revelation that God said to his messengers. From this point, it Clearly there are two big players, but God is the sender and the messenger to the recipient.
The role of the sender is transmitting conditions or information are packaged in the declarations and the role of the beneficiary is to unpack the terms and conditions for more information this subject.
However, in their construction process, the example of the Koran, is not in the original event sequence. For example, historically, the first verse God sent verses 1 was al-Alaq (96), however, the Koran circulated well before now begins with Al-Fatiha. Another thing is that worms are not written by God, and nobody is qualified to logical proof that God said "things. What we do is permanent in our belief (ie, Imam) that God said.
In the process of writing verses, it is reasonable to say that the verses are in fact A "narrative" God can not know things in their messengers, but physically, the messengers who wrote these lines. It is assumed that the lines that reflexive or indirect speech, in which the messenger that the reflector.
2.2. Verses Holy Book as a text or multiple gender
We turn to discussion of the distinction between verse and general text. The texts are divided into genera, and examining the structure of the text line, is probable to say that the verses (the Quran, in this case) contain several kinds.
Quran contains argumentative there are many arguments contained verses from God (eg, 3:79, 2:23, 6:93, etc.) and we understand as a persuasive essay containing the argument. Quran contains exhibition, which contains mainly type since its function is to explain and address (eg, 6:88, 9:79, etc.) that we understand the exposure this way (see Tarigan, 1994). Quran also essential, there are many verses started imperative (eg 5:95, 2:264, 22:01, and so on). Quran also contains narrative verses are so many stories of content (eg 12:07-end) in the sacred books especially the Quran, God speaks to the stories messengers and all these stories are.
Here you see that the Koran contains several types of text may be different from other textbooks. It is very difficult (or impossible) to make a comparative analysis between the sexes on the verses, and not remain on the gender. It is also possible to state that text lines are multi-functional, because it involves many difficult situations in our lives.
Physically, the Quran and the verses in it, is a text that contains explicit and implicit meaning can be obtained. In analyzing the verses better if the parser attempts to "eliminate" the metaphysical elements of the verses. What we can do is see the implicit meaning of the verses to look at the word choice, placement and other elements physical evidence.
However, as mentioned, this research will remain at the convention Indonesian language and English. He realized that no weakness against the original test configuration in which the lines are created. This can cause weakness in terms of validity internal research, but still standing on the assumption that the meaning of the text can still be obtained by other approaches, which is pragmatic.
Implicature is one of the topics covered in detail in the discussion pragmatic. There are two types implicature, conventional implicature and conversational. conventional implicature is a non-truth conditional inference, which is in no deduction Generally, natural statement of what is said but arises only because the classic features associated with lexical items and / or construction Language (Huang, 2007).
conversational implicature is a set of inference non-conditional logic, which contains the messages, which is not part of this said in the strict sense. It follows from the expression that is said through the partnership principle and its maxims of conversation component (Huang, 2007).
According to Griffiths (2006:134), conversational implicatures are inferences that depend on the existence of standards for the use of language as a broad agreement that communicators should try to tell the truth.
The main similarity between conventional and conversational implicature, is that it does not contribute to truth conditions. On the other hand, there are a number of important differences between conventional implicature and conversational. First, conventional implicatures are not derived from the principle of maximum cooperation and its components, but they are bound by Convention, in particular lexical or linguistic constructions. Are an arbitrary direction, and must learn ad hoc. In contrast, conversational implicatures are derived the principle of cooperation and his top assistant. Therefore, are not conventional, by definition, ie, they are motivated to arbitrary (Huang, 2007:56).
Grice (Huang, 2007; Griffiths, 2006; Thomas, 1995) proposed four maxims of the principle of cooperation after identifying certain rules of communication and showed how to participate on the reasoning that transmits statements beyond what is literally in sentences underlying code. These maxims are as follows:
Quality: Try to be honest in communication.
Quantity: to give appropriate amounts of information, not too little and too much.
Health: Statements must be clear, brief, orderly and not black.
Relevance: contributions must be made concerning the current objectives of those involved.
Grice believes that people should communicate this way, to generate a meaningful conversation and planned. Communication proceeds as if the speakers are usually guided by the maximum.
That can we learn from what is in the conversation or communication in general, there are rules that are dedicated to communication. We make communication in a "straight line" my best and do our addressee understands our desired message. We just need to be cooperation in the exercise communication.
However, it is often someone says, "A", but means "B", ie, it is proposed something else. Instead, "A" is not "B", or if-then-B, and vice versa. This means that people often communicate not believe Grice. Often, people state what they mean, or even less than the state average. Here, Thomas (1995) says that there should be two levels of meaning, expresses the sense and meaning implied. Must have a sense implicit in the statement which is supposed to be a deeper meaning, something that is beyond the words used in the construction of the expression.
To understand the implicit meaning, journalists should have a similar domain knowledge common or core of what this point is communication. They, of course, to communicate other than as stated "that are engaged in standards, but may include each other.
2.4. Implicit meaning in the verses
Implicatures are implied meaning of the term, means that times have changed, the meaning of words used in the construction of expression. It is assumed that the text as it is built with words and as having the producer, is its implicit meaning, and expressions of verbal conversation.
If so, it is possible that the poems, writings, also hinted that he is different or deeper than expressed.
To say that the verses contain implicit meanings is the truth, and God the President is his intention, in his statements. Even the verses the Qur'an is divided into two general categories, this which means ha-has verses and verses explicit subtext. The first is called muhkamat and the last is called mutasyabihat (See Qur'an 3:7).
A sense of explicit verses verses is easy to understand, or meanings are explicit. about the same time, implicit means verses, it is necessary to analyze more deeply and sometimes God alone knows the true meaning of the verses.
However, in this case, we, the lines text as mentioned by Thomas (1995), after expressing (or literal) meaning and implied meaning. God can use words that are easy to understand, but we may need to understand these words at a higher level, to grasp the deeper meaning.
Like the text, the lines will certainly be a deeper meaning and wider (or major update) is written. Therefore, we can assume that each line can have two levels of meaning at once. Here, we analyze seven verses of Al-Fatiha (the first letter of the Quran) to capture the underlying meaning, the deeper and wider verses.
3. Methods Search
In this section we briefly review the methods used in research. The discussion will be divided into two parts: the method of data collection and data analysis method.
3.1. Method of data collection
The only data of this research is the text of the verses, including seven verses of the Quran (Al-Fatiha), first locate the site data. This site is the location of the first stage of data collection (Creswell, 1997). As mentioned earlier, this research aims to explore the implied meaning in al-Fatiha, therefore, important data are the verses of the text of Al-Fatiha itself. Although it includes also other verses, verses are included only in the charging data to support our analysis.
This research is classified as document analysis, using text or documents, analyzed data. The paper is one of the forms of data (Creswell, 1997:121). It contains verses such as this document is based on the form and text. As the literature search, documentation is the main attempt by the researcher. Documentation here means an attempt to gather documents (Text) that are related to the research theme.
After locating (or define) the main research data because the data are originally written in Arabic, then the data was translated into English and Indonesian. For the English version, collect documents al-Quran translation in English and get the version of Indonesia, we document the translation of Al-Qur'an Indonesia (Surah al-giving Terjemahan) which is widely distributed in bookstores and can be easily. Due to the lack of research on this topic, it is very difficult to find previous research.
3.2. Data Analysis Method
After the data are collected, the data are analyzed from the perspective of pragmatics, in particular implicature. As has been mentioned that the data is text, then, these texts are transcribed and researcher looking to take the implicit meaning of the texts by the use of implicature.
There will be cross checked among the text. The interpretation Our version is compared to the interpretation of another version. In short, the analysis process is described as follows:
First, each line is described in its original form (in Arabic), then the English translation and Indonesia will continue.
Second, each line will be interpreted looking at the possible significance involving the use of the principles of implicature.
Third, each performance is compared with other performance versions to see if the similarity (or difference) exists. However, at this stage version of the interpretation will not be reduced In conclusion, for comparison.
Fourth, after all the verses are interpreted pragmatically, this research attempts to draw a conclusion about the outcome of the interpretation.
In this section, each verse is interpreted one by one by the pragmatic point of view, in particular implicature.
a. First verse
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Dengar nama Allah Yang Maha menyebut PENGASIH lagi Maha Penyayang
This verse has begun a revival of Dimension "in" you can logically conclude that Sayer (not God) is "out" before declaring "in the name …" This is a type of invitations to people who believe in God, to "get" the "name of God. "God's name implies a confession that the reader or Sayer and at the same time, God becomes the One is now responsibility for Sayer. Stating "in the name of God," Sayer is aware that is under God's control. The following two sentences containing scalar implicature "Most", which means more characters in addition to "Funny" and "merciful". All its implied meaning the first stanza is: "I'm in total control of God who is high and the characters are more compassionate and merciful." If verse was spoken by God, then it is God's invitation and at the same time an order which means "not under my control will not impact me, grace and mercy. "
b. Second Verse
الحمد لله رب العالمين
Praise be to God, the Lord of the Universe
Segala Puji Bagi Tuhan Allah alam Semesta,
"Praise be to God" implies that God should be praised, or it is worthy of praise. However, in Indonesia, word "Segala" is the scalar implicature which means nothing more than him. This also means that nothing is worthy of praise to God. The next "The Lord of the Universe ", also a scalar implicature involves measuring the infinite power of God. If this verse was spoken by God, then it a kind of statement that no power on earth is greater than yours.
c. Third Verse
Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Yang lagi Maha Maha PENGASIH Penyayang,
Again, he says he is more superior than the grace and mercy. It seems that he insists on these two characteristics. The man wants to understand it is not a persecutor, but he is the Most Merciful and the Most Merciful. However, without entering your name, not being of man in His grace and mercy.
d. fourth stanza
مالك يوم الدين
Master of the Day of Judgement
Hari yang pembalasan menguasai
This verse implies that there must be "Judgement Day" and the Lord is God. In Indonesia, the term "Yang Menguasai" means having the day. In addition, no power Day you say it does not have the other days? This implicature is canceled back to the previous verses, he says he is Lord of the Universe. This means that God is Lord of everything in this world, including the days.
e. Fifth Verse
إياك نعبد وإياك نستعين
You're the only one we worship, and we only ask you for help
Hanya kami KEPAD Engkaulah menyembah give Hanya kami KEPAD Engkaulah pertolongan Mohon;
The pronoun "you", follows the God himself. If this was given by God, then it means that God wants man to pray this prayer. The man wants to know who it is that which is good and he bowed was the only one who can give help to mankind. It also means that before he teaches in this way, humans do not comply. Ibnu Katsir mentioned that verse refers to what happened before is to say, people bowed Idols (Latta, Uzza, and Manatt) and requested the help of the idols. In addition, Indonesia sentence, "Hanya KEPAD Engkaulah … "contains the scalar implicature which means nothing else can be a bow to help, but to God.
f. Sixth verse
اهدنا الصراط المستقيم
Guide us in the right way;
Jalan yang kami Tunjukilah lurus
However, God teaches man to ask the address. This means that God declares that the Director of the universe, including humans. It teaches that it is the only living human being, and it is assumed that more nothing can be done God, in this regard. The term "right way" or "yang lurus jalan" means "no good" or "jalan yang tidak lurus. "From this perspective, we see another verse in the Quran (17:72)
ومن كان في هذه أعمى فهو في الآخرة أعمى وأضل سبيلا
This means as: heart that is blind in this world, then you're out in the world (and the next day). In addition, the "no good" and what is "right middle" is defined in the following verse. It seems that this verse violates maximum amount, because it does not explain what is "common sense".
g. Seventh verse
صراط الذين أنعمت عليهم غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الضالين
The path of those who have blessed, not those who have deserved anger, nor those who go astray.
Jalan yang orang-orang Telah Engkau nikmat KEPAD anugerahkan Merek, Bukan Bukan orang jalan jalan dimurkai yang yang give SESAT Merek.
This verse is a continuation of the previous verse. This verse answer to our question. "The path of those whom Thou hast blessed" what is the "right Road "and the answer Who is lucky? Blessed is he who "get" his name, which is aware that God is the Merciful, who knows that God is the only assistant who believes that God is the Lord of Judgement, who believes that God is praised and bowed to own. So what is "not good"? the answer is "Those who have deserved wrath, and who lost." Who are they? not "do" in their name, they do not know that God is the Most Merciful, are not aware that God is the only assistant who does not believe that God is the Lord of Judgement, who do not believe that God is praised and bowed to own. The last line cancels quota violation was said.
See discussion above, can be found that these verses are pronounced as the education of God to man. The verses contain many scalar implicature stress the superiority of God. God spoke the verses to teach humans how to behave in human life. It also highlights what will happen if humans do not respect that they teach. The verses also contain instructions, orders or requests. As you can see that the verses containing the value of pressure, but God used his words "The Most Gracious and Most Merciful" twice for emphasis and to convince the man he is not a persecutor. The human being as God wants what he wants to be.
Creswell, John. W. 1997. Research and qualitative research design: a choice among five traditions. Sage Publications. International publisher of professional education. Thousand Oaks London New Delhi.
Eggins, Suzanne. 2004. Introduction to systemic functional linguistics. Continuously. New York and London.
Griffiths, Patrick. 2006. An introduction to English semantics and pragmatics. Edinburgh University Press.
Huang Yan. 2007. Pragmatic. Oxford University Press.
Tarigan, HG, Prof. 1994. Menulis: Sebag Ketrampilan Penerbit Angkasa Bandung Berbahasa Suatu ..
Thomas, Jenny. 1995. Meaning in interaction: Introduction to pragmatics. New York Longman.
Originally published in ZPJ: Free Access Journal Philosophy of Language and Education Online http://zainurrahmans.wordpress.com
About the Author
Zainurrahman, was born on March, 5th 1983 in Ternate (An Island in North Maluku, Eastern Indonesia). He is an English Lecturer and a creative writer. He has written more than ten ebook titles that can be downloaded on http://zainurrahmans.wordpress.com and/or http://majelisaljabbar.wordpress.com
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